Combustion efficiency tables

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In every case, the cars were fueled with regular gasoline. These data were taken while the cars were stationary: first with the engine running at idle, and then with it running at rpm. The test samples of the peroxides, oxides, or hydroxides of the selected Group II elements suspended in ethanol were then added to the fuel in the gas tank of the car. The cars were then driven for 16 miles and a retest of the tailpipe emissions was performed.

The Figures 1 show the emission levels before and after the addition of the suspended catalysts. Earlier work with zinc oxide and zinc peroxide indicated that these two additives, when suspended in fuels, crated conditions which produce a more complete combustion of the fuel in internal combustion engines. It was suspected that other Group II elements in the. Periodic Table might also exhibit such behavior. If the oxides of these other elements were successful; then the like with the zinc catalyst, the hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide levels in the exhaust emissions should go down while the carbon dioxide levels in the exhaust increased This outcome is assumed to be indicative of a more complete combustion of the fuel.

Figures 5 through 1 1 show the results of the successful test which were observed. If there were no changes in the gaseous emission levels, these data were recorded but not plotted. However, the negative results are noted in the preceding summary However, with calcium peroxide, the carbon dioxide levels in the exhaust emission sometimes went down instead of up. This was attributed to the reaction between calcium oxide with carbon dioxide, produced during combustion, to form calcium carbonate.

Hence, a blend of calcium peroxide with zinc peroxide might be used to substantially eliminate most of the harmful and greenhouse gaseous emissions from automobiles. Figure 5 Tests performed with zinc hydroxide ZH suspended in ethanol and added to the regular gasoline in the tank Car 1 was an Olds Cierra with 99, miles Car 2 was a Chevy Pickup with , miles Except for car 1 at high rpm, the zinc hydroxide produced a substantial decrease in the carbon monoxide levels in the exhaust emission The anomaly observed with car 1 at high rpm should disappear after the car is driven greater distances on the ZH fuel catalyst additive.

Figure 8 Tests performed with strontium peroxide StP suspended in ethanol and added to the regular gasoline in the tank The test car was a Chevrolet Suburban with , miles In this test the StrP produced a substantial change in the carbon monoxide level only at high rpm There were minimal or no change in other gases. Figure 9 Tests performed with a combination of zinc peroxide and calcium peroxide suspended in ethanol and added to the regular gasoline in Ihe tank The test car was a Chevrolet Pickup with , miles.

In this test the mixed peroxides produced significant reductions of hydrocarbon emissions. Figure Tests performed with a combination of zinc peroxide and calcium peroxide suspended in ethanol and added to the regular gasoline in the tank. The test car was a Chevrolet Pickup with , miles. In this test the mixed peroxides produced anomalous results in CO emissions. Figure Tests performed with calcium peroxide CP suspended in ethanol and added to the regular gasoline in the tank. Here the test car 1 was a Pontiac Grand Prix with. Test car 2 was a Dodge Pickup with , miles. Car 3 was a Honda Accord with 85, miles.

In these tests the calcium peroxide produced consistent reductions in C0 2 emissions.

The Importance of Combustion Tuning - Boiling Point

Test 4 was EMD. Each test showed three runs using low rpm and high rpm respective for carbon monoxide NO and. EMD is one of the additives as defined by this application for being part of the invention. Therefore, diesel plus EMD is a modified fuel. The same Dodge Cummins Diesel was utilized for the test. Such a reduction in carbon monoxide emissions is desirable both at idle and running speed. Figure Illustrates a carbon monoxide emission using pemex diesel and EMD. Figure Illustrates for the same diesel Dodge pickup particle matter emission using pemex diesel and EMD versus two different baselines.

After sufficient pemex diesel and EMD was run through the vehicle, significant reduction in particle matter emission was achieved. Figure The international 7.

Development Of Combustion Efficiency Tables For Biofuels

A baseline with no additive achieved 8. Figure Illustrates a GMC 6. Test 2 showed a reduction using TBH. Test 3 showed a similar or greater reduction using only TBH in the fuel. Because the practice of refining crude oil to produce and improve the quality of motor gasoline has been extensively developed over the last several decades, a number of standard tests to measure quality have evolved. Core Laboratories of Houston, Texas was selected as an independent laboratory and requested to perform the ten tests listed in Table 6.

Generally, the lower the RVP the less volatile the fuel, and the lower the amount of fugitive emissions of hydrocarbons form the fuel. This was not unexpected; since EZP technology is based on the use of a peroxide as a catalyst. The only major concern with peroxides in the fuel is that any cracked fractions of the gasoline unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons may polymerize and form resin deposits. However, these same peroxides in an aromatic based fuel can help open the aromatic ring structures and prevent carbon deposit formation in the engine. It is still not understood as to how or why this increase takes place.

The above data while being inconclusive should further be compared with cetane. ASTM D analysis of commercially available diesel which gave a cetane number of In addition, Pemex diesel without additive provided a cetane number of 51 0 and yet when provided with an additive of zinc peroxide and tertary butyl hydroperoxide yielded a cetane number of A Ford Econoline E Diesel Van was used to test the effectiveness of fuel additive ZP for reduction of particulate emissions This vehicle had approximately 63, miles on its odometer and a thirty gallon fuel tank The van's gas tank was filled with commercial , pump-grade diesel fuel from a local Lubbock, Texas retail outlet The Van was driven in normal street traffic to warm up the engine Following this warm up period, the particulate exhaust emissions from the tailpipe were captured with a high volumetric filter at an isokinetic air velocity The particulate matter was first captured at an idle engine speed and then again at a high engine rpm However, the Van was stationary at all times during these tests Once these background data had been collected, the ZP fuel additive was added to the.

Van's fuel tank The additive consisted of 8 ounces of an ethanol carrier containing the zinc peroxide ZP catalyst at a concentration of ppm The Van was again driven in city traffic for fifteen minutes to make sure that the additive and the fuel were reasonably well blended After this stabilization period the particulate matter in the exhaust was again sampled at the isokinetic air velocities associated with idle 30 mph and high 60 mph rpm engine speeds.

DOP 0 3 micron sized particles The filters were especially developed for high volume air sampling of atmospheric particles and aerosols and are approved by EPA Microscopy The test filters with the exhaust debris attached were sent to SemTech, Inc.

Combustion efficiency tables

For microscopy analysis. These samples were then mounted with carbon tape on individual stubs with the appropriate side up and examined at X to X. The data from the microscopy studies were reduced to indicate the number of particles per square mm of the filter surface captured during a thirty minute test. Several individual particles were also analyzed for chemical composition. The average length to width ratio of the particles was also determined, and these are also shown in Table 8.

As expected, the high engine rpm levels with the higher isokinetic velocities always produced more particles on the filter surfaces which were skewed towards larger average particle sizes. In both cases, with and without the additive, the particles were found to consist primarily of oxides and other minerals of iron, sulfur, phosphorous, and copper.

These elements are common to the additives used in diesel fuels, or to the metallurgy of the engine. For example, sulfur and phosphorous can be found in the fuel, while iron and copper are common wear metals from engine components. Another study has shown that the use of the ZP additive can reduce the amount of wear metals formed during engine operation while the levels of sulphur and phosphorous remain dependent on the fuel being used.

Finally, as noted above, the lower engine rpms produced particles with smaller size distributions, while the exhaust velocities at the higher rpms were capable of sweeping more and larger sized particles out of the exhaust system. This is a kinetic energy effect in which more and larger particles are entrained and translated at the higher velocity. Also shown in Table 8 for comparison purposes are the same types of data taken from a vehicle fueled on regular unleaded gasoline.

In this case the numbers of particles are greatly reduced for gasoline versus diesel, and the additive was found to actually add to the particulate emissions at low rpm engine speeds. Nine other samples were glass fiber filters identified as l - 8 and E Elemental analysis and the size distribution were to be performed on a random selection of particulates on the filters. The results of the particle size measurements were tabulated and plotted using an Excel spreadsheet. Samples were mounted with carbon tape on individual stubs with the appropriate side up. Each specimen was examined at X - X.

The area of the field was calculated according to the magnification used. Particle sizing and EDX spectra were made of 10 to 20 fields in each of the nine samples. Table 10 shows the elements present in particulates found on the respective 9 filters.

Understanding Combustion Efficiency

The last entry are the background elemental constituents of an unused, clean area on a glass fiber filter. The shaded area in Table 10 are elements found in the glass fiber filter In order to distinguish these background elements from the particulates found on the filter, each spectra collected had the background elements' peaks subtracted form each EDX spectrum to the degree consistent with the amount found in background control spectnim The remaining peaks, even elements previously identified as background elements, are a true depiction of the constituent elements of a particulate.

Particulate size distribution was determined using the Noran Voyager image analysis software Images were converted to a binary format and then adjusted so that only the particulate binary images remained The software then determined the area, length, and width dimensions of the particulates This process was followed for images from all filters Table 1 1 shows the averages for each of the nine Groups - 3 i.

The data of Table 12 indicates that new oil is relatively clean Of the eight 8 metals examined in the test, zinc, copper and iron appear to be the biggest contributors to contaminated oil However as can be seen the iron contamination is reduced substantially through the use of E M P after miles as is zinc and copper Differences in oils, equipment, locations and operations prohibit a simple guideline for establishing where metal limits will fall.

One should also be reminded that zinc is considered to be an antiwear additive and is typically utilized in the industry as an additive for lubrication purposes. On the other hand, most iron complex particulate material is generally quite hard used as a polishing powder and creates wear problems through its presence in the lubricating oil. Outboard marine two cycle engines were tested utilizing EnviroMax Plus fuel catalyst.

The initial deposit results of a small 9. The exhaust system was clean and dry with the complete disapperance of the normally oily deposits. The combustion catalyst additives in accordance with the present invention were most suitable for enhancing cleaner burn with less emissions even in two cycle engines as indicated by the two cycle used engine evaluation test. Test 1 had no product or additive added to the diesel fuel that was purchased through local stations in Lubbock, Texas.

The value corresponds to an exothermic reaction a negative change in enthalpy because the double bond in molecular oxygen is much weaker than other double bonds or pairs of single bonds, particularly those in the combustion products carbon dioxide and water; conversion of the weak bonds in oxygen to the stronger bonds in carbon dioxide and water releases energy as heat.

By convention, the heat of combustion is defined to be the heat released for the complete combustion of a compound in its standard state to form stable products in their standard states: hydrogen is converted to water in its liquid state , carbon is converted to carbon dioxide gas, and nitrogen is converted to nitrogen gas. Chlorine and sulfur are not quite standardized; they are usually assumed to convert to hydrogen chloride gas and SO 2 or SO 3 gas, respectively, or to dilute aqueous hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, respectively, when the combustion is conducted in a bomb containing some quantity of water.

The quantity known as higher heating value HHV or gross energy or upper heating value or gross calorific value GCV or higher calorific value HCV is determined by bringing all the products of combustion back to the original pre-combustion temperature, and in particular condensing any vapor produced. This is the same as the thermodynamic heat of combustion since the enthalpy change for the reaction assumes a common temperature of the compounds before and after combustion, in which case the water produced by combustion is condensed to a liquid. The higher heating value takes into account the latent heat of vaporization of water in the combustion products, and is useful in calculating heating values for fuels where condensation of the reaction products is practical e.

The quantity known as lower heating value LHV net calorific value NCV or lower calorific value LCV is determined by subtracting the heat of vaporization of the water from the higher heating value.

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This treats any H 2 O formed as a vapor. The energy required to vaporize the water therefore is not released as heat. LHV calculations assume that the water component of a combustion process is in vapor state at the end of combustion, as opposed to the higher heating value HHV a.

The LHV assumes that the latent heat of vaporization of water in the fuel and the reaction products is not recovered. The distinction between the two is that this second definition assumes that the combustion products are all returned to the reference temperature and the heat content from the condensing vapor is considered not to be useful.

This is more easily calculated from the higher heating value than when using the preceding definition and will in fact give a slightly different answer. Gross heating value see AR accounts for water in the exhaust leaving as vapor, and includes liquid water in the fuel prior to combustion. This value is important for fuels like wood or coal , which will usually contain some amount of water prior to burning.

Combustion efficiency tables Combustion efficiency tables
Combustion efficiency tables Combustion efficiency tables
Combustion efficiency tables Combustion efficiency tables
Combustion efficiency tables Combustion efficiency tables
Combustion efficiency tables Combustion efficiency tables
Combustion efficiency tables Combustion efficiency tables

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